Goods and Services Tax

GST – Concept & Status – AS ON 1st March, 2019

Goods and Services Tax – GST – Dated:- 9-3-2019 – GOODS AND SERVICE TAX (GST) CONCEPT & STATUS CENTRAL BOARD OF INDIRECT TAXES AND CUSTOMS (CBIC) DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE MINISTRY OF FINANCE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA AS ON 1st March, 2019 The uniform system of taxation, which, with a few exceptions of no great consequence, takes place in all the different parts of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, leaves the interior commerce of the country, the inland and coasting trade, almost entirely free. The inland trade is almost perfectly free, and the greater part of goods may be carried from one end of the kingdom to the other, without requiring any permit or let-pass, without being subject to question, visit, or examination from the revenue officers. ……This freedom of interior commerce, the effect of uniformity of the system of taxation, is perhaps one of the principal causes of the prosperity of Great Britain; every great country being necessarily the best and most extensive ma

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icle 265 of the Constitution of India provides that no tax shall be levied or collected except by authority of law. As per Article 246 of the Constitution, Parliament has exclusive powers to make laws in respect of matters given in Union List (List I of the Seventh Schedule) and State Government has the exclusive jurisdiction to legislate on the matters containing in State List (List II of the Seventh Schedule). In respect of the matters contained in Concurrent List (List III of the Seventh Schedule), both the Central Government and State Governments have concurrent powers to legislate. 2.2 Before advent of GST, the most important sources of indirect tax revenue for the Union were customs duty (entry 83 of Union List), central excise duty (entry 84 of Union List), and service tax (entry 97 of Union List). Although entry 92C was inserted in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution by the Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003 for levy of taxes on services, it

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IN POST-INDEPENDENCE INDIA TILL GST: 3.1 In post-Independence period, central excise duty was levied on a few commodities which were in the nature of raw materials and intermediate inputs, and consumer goods were outside the net by and large. The first set of reform was suggested by the Taxation Enquiry Commission (1953-54) under the chairmanship of Dr. John Matthai. The Commission recommended that sales tax should be used specifically by the States as a source of revenue with Union governments' intervention allowed generally only in case of inter-State sales. It also recommended levy of a tax on inter-State sales subject to a ceiling of 1%, which the States would administer and also retain the revenue. 3.2 The power to levy tax on sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-State trade and commerce was assigned to the Union by the Constitution (Sixth Amendment) Act, 1956. By mid-1970s, central excise duty was extended to most manufactured goods. Central excise duty was levie

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ith the New Economic Policy of 1991. The Tax Reforms Committee under the chairmanship of Prof. Raja J Chelliah was appointed in 1991. This Committee recommended broadening of the tax base by taxing services and pruning exemptions, consolidation and lowering of rates, extension of MODVAT on all inputs including capital goods. It suggested that reform of tax structure must have to be accompanied by a reform of tax administration, if complete benefits were to be derived from the tax reforms. Many of the recommendations of the Chelliah Committee were implemented. In 1999-2000, tax rates were merged in three rates, with additional rates on a few luxury goods. In 2000-01, three rates were merged into one rate called Central Value Added Tax (CENVAT). A few commodities were subjected to special excise duty. 3.5 Taxation of services by the Union was introduced in 1994 bringing in its ambit only three services, namely general insurance, telecommunication and stock broking. Gradually, more and mo

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ten in some States and these varied for the same commodity in different States. Inter-state sales were subjected to levy of Central Sales Tax. As this tax was appropriated by the exporting State credit was not allowed by the dealer in the importing State. This resulted into exportation of tax from richer to poorer states and also cascading of taxes. Interestingly, States had power of taxation over services from the very beginning. States levied tax on advertisements, luxuries, entertainments, amusements, betting and gambling. 3.7 A report, titled Reform of Domestic Trade Taxes in India , on reforming indirect taxes, especially State sales tax, by National Institute of Public Finance and Policy under the leadership of Dr. Amaresh Bagchi, was prepared in 1994. This Report prepared the ground for implementation of VAT in States. Some of the key recommendations were; replacing sales tax by VAT by moving over to a multistage system of taxation; allowing input tax credits for all inputs, in

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implement VAT, in 2003. In 2005, VAT was implemented in most of the states. Uttar Pradesh was the last State to implement VAT, from 1st January, 2008. 4. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON GST / VAT: 4.1 VAT and GST are used inter-changeably as the latter denotes comprehensiveness of VAT by coverage of goods and services. France was the first country to implement VAT, in 1954. Presently, more than 160 countries have implemented GST / VAT in some form or the other. The most popular form of VAT is where taxes paid on inputs are allowed to be adjusted in the liability at the output. The VAT or GST regime in practice varies from one country to another in terms of its technical aspects like definition of supply , extent of coverage of goods and services , treatment of exemptions and zero rating etc. However, at a broader level, it has one common principle, it is a destination based consumption tax. From economic point of view, VAT is considered to be a superior system over sales tax of taxing co

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eparately are called non- participating provinces , whereas provinces which have teamed up with the Federal Government for tax administration are called participating provinces . 4.3 The rate of GST varies across countries. While Malaysia has a lower rate of 6% (Malaysia though scrapped GST in 2018 due to popular uproar against it), Hungary has one of the highest rate of 27%. Australia levies GST at the rate of 10% whereas Canada has multiple rate slabs. The average rate of VAT across the EU is around 19.5%. 5. NEED FOR GST IN INDIA: 5.1 The introduction of CENVAT removed to a great extent cascading burden by expanding the coverage of credit for all inputs, including capital goods. CENVAT scheme later also allowed credit of services and the basket of inputs, capital goods and input services could be used for payment of both central excise duty and service tax. Similarly, the introduction of VAT in the States has removed the cascading effect by giving set-off for tax paid on inputs as w

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akes place. Despite remarkable harmonization in VAT regimes under the auspices of the EC, the national market was fragmented with too many obstacles in free movement of goods necessitated by procedural requirement under VAT and CST. 5.4 In the constitutional scheme, taxation powers on goods was with Central Government but it was limited upto the stage of manufacture and production while States have powers to tax sale and purchase of goods. Centre had powers to tax services and States also had powers to tax certain services specified in clause (29A) of Article 366 of the Constitution. This sort of division of taxing powers created a grey zone which led to legal disputes. Determination of what constitutes a goods or service is difficult because in modern complex system of production, a product is normally a mixture of goods and services. 5.5 As can be seen from the previous paragraphs, India moved towards value added taxation both at Central and State level, and this process was complete

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skforce on Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management, which in 2004 recommended GST to replace the existing tax regime by introducing a comprehensive tax on all goods and services replacing Central level VAT and State level VATs. It recommended replacing all indirect taxes except the customs duty with value added tax on all goods and services with complete set off in all stages of the value chain. An announcement was made by the then Union Finance Minister in Budget (2006-07) to the effect that GST would be introduced with effect from April 1, 2010 and that the EC, on his request, would work with the Central Government to prepare a road map for introduction of GST in India. After this announcement, the EC decided to set up a Joint Working Group in May 10, 2007, with the then Adviser to the Union Finance Minister and Member-Secretary of the Empowered Committee as its Co-conveners and four Joint Secretaries of the Department of Revenue of Union Finance Ministry and all Finance Secretar

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These views of EC were then sent to the Government of India, and the comments of Government of India were received on December 12, 2008. These comments were duly considered by the EC (December 16, 2008), and it was decided that a Committee of Principal Secretaries/Secretaries of Finance/Taxation and Commissioners of Trade Taxes of the States would be set up to consider these comments, and submit their views. These views were submitted and were accepted in principle by the EC (January 21, 2009). Based on discussions within the EC and between the EC and the Central Government, the EC released its First Discussion Paper (FDP) on GST in November, 2009. This spelled out the features of the proposed GST and has formed the basis for discussion between the Centre and the States. 7. CHALLENGES IN DESIGNING GST: 7.1 In the discussion that preceded amendment in the Constitution for GST, there were a number of thorny issues that required resolution and agreement between Central Government and Stat

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o recover the cost of infrastructure and public services provided by the State Governments to the industries producing the goods which are consumed in other states. This line of reasoning is based on the assumption that in the absence of a tax on inter-State sales, the location of export industries within their jurisdiction would not contribute to the tax revenues of the exporting state. This view was missing the fact that any value addition in a jurisdiction necessarily means extra income in the hands of the residents of that jurisdiction. Spending of this income on consumer goods expands the sales tax base of the producing states and thereby contributes to their revenues. In fact, to the extent that consumer expenditures are dependent on the level of income of the residents of a State, it is the producing States that stand to gain the most in additional sales tax revenues (even under the destination basis of consumption taxes) from increased export output. 7.3 Rate Structure and Comp

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given single rate that gets converted into a whole rate structure, depending on policy choices about exemptions, what commodities to charge at a lower rate and what to charge at a very high rate. 7.3.2 The Committee recommended RNR of 15-15.5% (to be levied by the Centre and States combined). The lower rates (to be applied to certain goods consumed by the poor) should be 12%. Further, the sin or demerit rates (to be applied on luxury cars, aerated beverages, pan masala, and tobacco) should be 40%. 7.4 Dispute Settlement: A harmonized system of taxation necessarily required that all stakeholders stick to the decisions taken by the supreme body, which was later constituted as the Goods and Services Tax Council (the Council). However, the possibility of departure from the recommendations of such body cannot be completely ruled out. Any departure would definitely affect other stakeholders and in such circumstances there must be a statutory body to which affected parties may approach for d

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these products from the ambit of GST. In the 115th Amendment Bill alcoholic liquor for human consumption and five petroleum products namely crude petroleum, high speed diesel, motor spirit or petrol, aviation turbine fuel and natural gas were kept out of GST. But in the 122nd Amendment Bill, only alcoholic liquor for human consumption was kept outside GST and above mentioned five petroleum products were proposed to be brought under GST from a date to be recommended by the Council. The Central Government has also retained its power to tax tobacco and tobacco products, though these are also under GST. Thus, to ensure smooth transition and provide fiscal buffer to States, it was agreed to keep alcohol completely out of the ambit of GST. 8. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT: 8.1 As explained above, unification of Central VAT and State VAT was possible in form of a dual levy under the constitutional scheme. Power of taxation is assigned to either Union or States subject-wise under Schedule VII of th

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on 29th March, 2011. The Standing Committee submitted its report on the Bill in August, 2013. However, the Bill, which was pending in the Lok Sabha, lapsed with the dissolution of the 15th Lok Sabha. 8.3 The Constitution (122nd Amendment) Bill, 2014 was introduced in the 16th Lok Sabha on 19th December, 2014. The Constitution Amendment Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha in May, 2015. The Bill was referred to the Select Committee of Rajya Sabha on 12th May, 2015. The Select Committee submitted its Report on the Bill on 22nd July, 2015. The Bill with certain amendments was finally passed in the Rajya Sabha and thereafter by Lok Sabha in August, 2016. Further the bill was ratified by required number of States and received assent of the President on 8th September, 2016 and has since been enacted as Constitution (101st Amendment) Act, 2016 w.e.f. 16th September, 2016. 8.4 The important changes introduced in the Constitution by the 101st Amendment Act are the following: a) Insertion of new ar

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course of inter-State trade or commerce. d) Article 270 has been amended to provide for distribution of goods and services tax collected by the Union between the Union and the States. e) Article 271 has been amended which restricts power of the Parliament to levy surcharge under GST. In effect, surcharge cannot be imposed on goods and services which are subject to tax under Article 246A. f) Article 279A has been inserted to provide for the constitution and mandate of GST Council. g) Article 366 has been amended to exclude alcoholic liquor for human consumption from the ambit of GST, and services have been defined. h) Article 368 has been amended to provide for a special procedure which requires the ratification of the Bill by the legislatures of not less than one half of the States in addition to the method of voting provided for amendment of the Constitution. Thus, any modification in GST Council shall also require the ratification by the legislatures of one half of the States. i) Ent

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and the State Finance/Taxation Ministers as members. It shall make recommendations to the Union and the States on the following issues: a) the taxes, cesses and surcharges levied by the Centre, the States and the local bodies which may be subsumed under GST; b) the goods and services that may be subjected to or exempted from the GST; c) model GST laws, principles of levy, apportionment of IGST and the principles that govern the place of supply; d) the threshold limit of turnover below which the goods and services may be exempted from GST; e) the rates including floor rates with bands of GST; f) any special rate or rates for a specified period to raise additional resources during any natural calamity or disaster; g) special provision with respect to the North- East States, J&K, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand; and h) any other matter relating to the GST, as the Council may decide. 9.2 The Council shall recommend the date on which the goods and services tax be levied on petroleum cr

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weightage of two-thirds of the total votes cast, in that meeting. 9.4 The Council has met for 33 times and no occasion has arisen so far that required voting to decide any matter. The following major recommendations have been made by the Council: 9.4.1 Legal/Rules: 9.4.1.1 Recommending GST laws, namely CGST Law, UTGST Law, IGST Law, SGST Law and GST Compensation Law paving the way for implementation of GST. 9.4.1.2 Rules on composition, registration, input tax credit, invoice, determination of value of supply, accounts and records, returns, payment, refund, assessment and audit, advance ruling, appeals and revision, transitional provisions, anti-profiteering, E-way Bill, inspection, search and seizure, demands and recovery and offences and penalties have been recommended. 9.4.2 Registration and Threshold: 9.4.2.1 The threshold exemption limit was set at ₹ 20 lakh. For special category States (except J&K) enumerated in article 279A of the Constitution, threshold exemption limi

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making supplies through e-commerce platforms. 9.4.2.5 Taxpayers may opt for multiple registrations within a State/Union territory in respect of multiple places of business located within the same State/Union territory. 9.4.2.6 Mandatory registration is required for only those e-commerce operators who are required to collect tax at source. 9.4.2.7 Registration to remain temporarily suspended while cancellation of registration is under process, so that the taxpayer is relieved of continued compliance under the law. 9.4.3 Migration: 9.4.3.1 One more window for completion of migration process is being allowed. The due date for the taxpayers who did not file the complete FORM GST REG-26 but received only a Provisional ID (PID) till 31.12.2017 for furnishing the requisite details to the jurisdictional nodal officer was extended till 31.01.2019. Also, the due date for furnishing FORM GSTR-3B and FORM GSTR-1 for the period July, 2017 to February, 2019 / quarters July, 2017 to December, 2018 by

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ent of taxes (along with a Simple declaration). This would be made effective from 01.04.2019. 9.4.4.3 Composition scheme shall not be available to inter-State suppliers and specified category of manufacturers. 9.4.5 Tax Administration: 9.4.5.1 In order to ensure single interface, all administrative control over 90% of taxpayers having turnover below ₹ 1.5 crore would vest with State tax administration and over 10% with the Central tax administration. Further all administrative control over taxpayers having turnover above ₹ 1.5 crore shall be divided equally in the ratio of 50% each for the Central and State tax administration. 9.4.5.2 Powers under the IGST Act shall also be cross-empowered on the same basis as under CGST and SGST Acts with few exceptions. 9.4.5.3 Power to collect GST in territorial waters shall be delegated by Central Government to the States. 9.4.5.4 Power to take enforcement action over entire taxpayer s base would be with both Central as well as State ta

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made by BHIM or Rupay card. The necessary infrastructure is being developed and soon the scheme would be implemented on pilot basis in State of Assam and few other States which volunteer for the same. 9.4.8.3 In principle approval has been given for amendment of section 50 of the CGST Act to provide that interest should be charged only on the net tax liability of the taxpayer, after taking into account the admissible input tax credit, i.e. interest would be leviable only on the amount payable through the electronic cash ledger. This would be implemented once the law is amended. 9.4.9 Exemption: 9.4.9.1 Supply from GTA to unregistered persons has been exempted from tax. 9.4.10 Refunds: 9.4.10.1 A scheme of single authority for disbursement of the refund amount sanctioned by either the Centre or the State tax authorities would be implemented on pilot basis. The modalities for the same are being finalized. 9.4.10.2 All the supporting documents/invoices in relation to a claim for refund i

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2.2 From October 2017 onwards, the amount of late fee for late filing of GSTR-3B payable by a registered person is as follows: a. Whose tax liability for that month was NIL will be ₹ 20/- per day instead of ₹ 200/- per day; b. Whose tax liability for that month was not NIL will be ₹ 50/- per day instead of ₹ 200/- per day. 9.4.13 New Return System: 9.4.13.1 The new return filing system shall be introduced on a trial basis from 01.04.2019 and on mandatory basis from 01.07.2019. 9.4.13.2 All taxpayers excluding small taxpayers and a few exceptions like ISD etc. shall file one monthly return. 9.4.13.3 The new return system is simple with two main tables. One for reporting outward supplies and one for availing input tax credit based on invoices uploaded by the supplier. 9.4.13.4 Invoices can be uploaded continuously by the supplier and can be continuously viewed and locked by the buyer for availing input tax credit. This process would ensure that very large part of

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hat in the regular return. 9.4.13.8 The new return design provides facility for amendment of invoice and also other details filed in the return. Amendment shall be carried out by filing of a return called amendment return. Payment would be allowed to be made through the amendment return as it will help save interest liability for the taxpayers. 9.4.14 ITC: 9.4.14.1 ITC in relation to invoices issued by the supplier during FY 2017-18 may be availed by the recipient till the due date for furnishing of FORM GSTR-3B for the month of March, 2019, subject to specified conditions. 9.4.14.2 The due date for submitting FORM GST ITC-04 for the period July 2017 to December 2018 shall be extended till 31.03.2019. 9.4.15 TDS/TCS: 9.4.15.1 TDS/TCS provisions shall be implemented from 01.10.2018. 9.4.15.2 Further, to provide some more time to TDS deductor to familiarize themselves with the new system, last date for furnishing return in FORM GSTR-7 for the months of October, 2018 to December, 2018 and

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study the revenue trend, including analyzing the reasons for structural patterns affecting the revenue collection in some of the States. The study would include the underlying reasons for deviation from the revenue collection targets vis a vis original assumptions discussed during the design of GST system, its implementation and related structural issues. 9.4.19.2 The Group of Ministers will be assisted by the committee of experts from Central Government, State Governments and the NIPFP (National Institute of Public Finance and Planning), who would study and share the findings with GoM. The GoM in turn would give its recommendation to the GST Council. 9.4.19.3 The amount of IGST not apportioned to the Centre or the States/UTs may, for the time being, on the recommendations of the Council, be apportioned at the rate of fifty per cent. to the Central Government and fifty per cent. to the State Governments or the Union territories, as the case may be, on adhoc basis and this amount shall

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a Composition Scheme to Boost the Residential Segment of the Real Estate Sector. 9.4.20.2 GST Council in its 33nd meeting held on 24.02.2019 recommended that GST shall be levied at effective rate of 5% without ITC on residential properties outside affordable segment. 9.4.20.3 GST shall be levied at effective rate of 1% without ITC on affordable housing properties. 9.4.20.4 The new rate shall become applicable from 01.04.2019. Definition of affordable housing shall be:- A residential house/flat of carpet area of up to 90 sqm in non-metropolitan cities/towns and 60 sqm in metropolitan cities having value upto ₹ 45 lacs (both for metropolitan and non-metropolitan cities). Metropolitan Cities are Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi NCR (limited to Delhi, Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon, Faridabad), Hyderabad, Kolkata and Mumbai (whole of MMR). 9.4.20.5 GST exemption on TDR/ JDA, long term lease (premium), FSI: Intermediate tax on development right, such as TDR, JDA, lease (premium),

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tax on movie tickets up to 10 per cent. 9.4.23 Recent Law amendments wef 01.02.2019: 9.4.23.1 Scope of input tax credit has been widened, and it would now be made available in respect of the following: a. Most of the activities or transactions specified in Schedule III b. Motor vehicles for transportation of persons having seating capacity of more than thirteen (including driver), vessels and aircraft c. Services of general insurance, repair and maintenance in respect of motor vehicles, vessels and aircraft on which credit is available d. Goods or services which are obligatory for an employer to provide to its employees, under any law for the time being in force. 9.4.23.2 The order of cross-utilization of input tax credit has been rationalized. 9.4.23.3 Commissioner empowered to extend the time limit for return of inputs and capital sent on job work, up to a period of one year and two years, respectively. 9.4.23.4 Place of supply in case of job work of any treatment or process done on

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lized Appellate Authority for Advance Ruling (AAAR) to deal with cases of conflicting decisions by two or more State Appellate Advance Ruling Authorities on the same issue. This would be implemented once the law is amended. 9.4.24.2 Existing tax incentive schemes of Central or State governments may be continued by respective government by way of reimbursement through budgetary route. The schemes, in the present form, would not continue in GST. 9.4.24.3 50% of the GST paid will be refunded to CSD (Defense Canteens). 9.4.24.4 Centralized UIN shall be issued to every Foreign Diplomatic Mission / UN Organization by the Central Government for handling their refund related applications. 9.4.24.5 There would be a single cash ledger for each tax head. The modalities for implementation would be finalized in consultation with GSTN and the Accounting authorities. 9.4.24.6 Free Accounting and Billing Software shall be provided to Small Taxpayers by GSTN. 10. THE DESIGN OF INDIAN GST: 10.1 Concurre

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ue addition after adjusting available credit of IGST, CGST, and SGST on his purchases. The Exporting State will transfer to the Centre the credit of SGST used in payment of IGST. The person based in the destination State will claim credit of IGST while discharging his output tax liability in his own State. The Centre will transfer to the importing State the credit of IGST used in payment of SGST. The relevant information will also be submitted to the Central Agency which will act as a clearing house mechanism, verify the claims and inform the respective governments to transfer the funds. The major advantages of IGST Model are: a) Maintenance of uninterrupted ITC chain on inter-State transactions. b) No upfront payment of tax or substantial blockage of funds for the inter-State supplier or recipient. c) No refund claim in exporting State, as ITC is used up while paying the tax. d) Self-monitoring model. e) Model takes Business to Business as well as Business to Consumer transactions int

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ars from the date on which the State brings its SGST Act into force. For the purpose of calculating the compensation amount in any financial year, year 2015-16 will be assumed to be the base year, for calculating the revenue to be protected. The growth rate of revenue for a State during the five-year period is assumed be 14% per annum. The base year tax revenue consists of the states tax revenues from: (i) State Value Added Tax (VAT), (ii) central sales tax, (iii) entry tax, octroi, local body tax, (iv) taxes on luxuries, (v) taxes on advertisements, etc. However, any revenue among these taxes arising related to supply of alcohol for human consumption, and five specified petroleum products, will not be accounted as part of the base year revenue. A GST Compensation Cess is levied on the supply of certain goods and services, as recommended by the GST Council to finance the compensation cess. 10.5 E-Way Bill System: The introduction of e-way (electronic way) bill is a monumental shift fro

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ased input tax credit should have been passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices. 10.6.1 National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAPA) has been constituted under GST by the Central Government to examine the complaints of non-passing the benefit of reduced tax incidence. The Authority shall cease to exist after the expiry of two years from the date on which the Chairman enters upon his office unless the Council recommends otherwise. 10.6.2 The Authority may determine whether any reduction in the rate of tax or the benefit of input tax credit has been passed on to the recipient by way of commensurate reduction in prices. It can order reduction in prices, imposition of penalty, cancellation of registration and any other decision as may deem fit, after inquiry into the case. 10.7 Concept of Supply: GST would be applicable on supply of goods or services as against the present concept of tax on manufacture of goods or on sale of goods or on provision of services. It

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imit of Annual Turnover in the preceding Financial Year for availing Composition Scheme for Goods has now been increased to ₹ 1.5 crore. 10.10 Zero rated Supplies: Export of goods and services are zero rated. Supplies to SEZs developers and SEZ units are also zero-rated. The benefit of zero rating can be taken either with payment of integrated tax, or without payment of integrated tax under bond or Letter of Undertaking. 10.11 Cross-utilization of ITC: IGST credit can be used for payment of all taxes. CGST credit can be used only for paying CGST or IGST. SGST credit can be used only for paying SGST or IGST. The credit would be permitted to be utilized in the following manner: a) ITC of CGST allowed for payment of CGST & IGST in that order; b) ITC of SGST allowed for payment of SGST & IGST in that order; c) ITC of UTGST allowed for payment of UTGST & IGST in that order; d) ITC of IGST allowed for payment of IGST, CGST & SGST/UTGST in that order. ITC of CGST cannot

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Deduction at Source: Obligation on certain persons including government departments, local authorities and government agencies, who are recipients of supply, to deduct tax at the rate of 1% from the payment made or credited to the supplier where total value of supply, under a contract, exceeds two lakh and fifty thousand rupees. The provision for TDS has been operationalized wef 01st October, 2018. Exemption from the provisions of TDS has been given to certain authorities under the Ministry of Defence. 10.15 Refunds: Refund of tax to be sought by taxpayer or by any other person who has borne the incidence of tax within two years from the relevant date. Refund of unutilized ITC also available in zero rated supplies and inverted tax structure. 10. 16 Tax Collection at Source: Obligation on electronic commerce operators to collect tax at source , at such rate not exceeding two per cent of net value of taxable supplies, out of payments to suppliers supplying goods or services through their

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al: Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal would be constituted by the Central Government for hearing appeals against the orders passed by the Appellate Authority or the Revisional Authority. States would adopt the provisions relating to Tribunal in respective SGST Act. 10.20 Advance Ruling Authority: Advance Ruling Authority would be constituted by States in order to enable the taxpayer to seek a binding clarity on taxation matters from the department. Centre would adopt such authority under CGST Act. 10.21 Transitional Provisions: Elaborate transitional provisions have been provided for smooth transition of existing taxpayers to GST regime. 10.21 Subsuming of taxes, duties etc.: Among the taxes and duties levied and collected by the Union, Central Excise duty, Duties of Excise (Medicinal and Toilet Preparations), Additional Duties of Excise (Goods of Special Importance), Additional Duties of Excise (Textiles and Textile Products), Additional Duties of Customs (commonly known as CV

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K. 11.2. In its 28th meeting held in New Delhi on 21.07.2018, the GST Council recommended certain amendments in the CGST Act, IGST Act, UTGST Act and the GST (Compensation to States) Act. These amendments have been passed by Parliament and have been enacted wef 01.02.2019, as the Central Goods and Services Tax (Amendment) Act, 2018, the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (Amendment) Act, 2018, the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax (Amendment) Act, 2018 and the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Amendment Act, 2018, respectively. 11.3. On 22nd June, 2017, the first notification was issued for GST and notified certain sections under CGST. Since then, 163 notifications under CGST Act have been issued notifying sections, notifying rules, amendment to rules and for waiver of penalty, etc. 19, 33 and 2 notifications have also been issued under IGST Act, UTGST Act and GST (Compensation to States) Act respectively. Further 78, 83, 78 and 9 rate related notifications each have

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cise & Service Tax) would require re-engineering. The name of IT project of CBIC under GST is SAKSHAM involving a total project value of ₹ 2,256 Cr. 12.2 Augmentation of human resources would be necessary to handle large taxpayers base in GST scattered across the length and breadth of the country. Capacity building, particularly in the field of Accountancy and Information Technology for the departmental officers has to be taken up in a big way. A massive four-tier training programme has been conducted under the leadership of NACIN. This training project is aimed at imparting training on GST law and procedures to more than 60,000 officers of CBIC and Commercial Tax officers of State Governments. 12.3 CBIC would be responsible for administration of the CGST and IGST law. In addition, excise duty regime would continue to be administered by the CBIC for levy and collection of central excise duty on five specified petroleum products as well as on tobacco products. CBIC would also

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has been appointed as Managed Service Provider (MSP). GSTN has selected 73 IT, ITeS and financial technology companies and 1 Commissioner of Commercial Taxes (CCT, Karnataka), to be called GST Suvidha Providers (GSPs). GSPs would develop applications to be used by taxpayers for interacting with the GSTN. The diagram below shows the work distribution under GST. 13.2 Central Government holds 24.5 percent stake in GSTN while the state government holds 24.5 percent. The remaining 51 percent are held by non-Government financial institutions, HDFC and HDFC Bank hold 20%, ICICI Bank holds 10%, NSE Strategic Investment holds 10% and LIC Housing Finance holds 10%. The GST Council in its 27th meeting held on 04.05.2018 has approved the change in shareholding pattern of GSTN. Considering the nature of state function performed by GSTN, the GST Council felt that GSTN be converted into a fully owned Government company. Accordingly, the Council approved acquisition of entire 51 per cent of equity hel

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ket and give boost to Indian exports. The uniformity in tax rates and procedures across the country will also go a long way in reducing the compliance cost. 14.3 Benefits to small traders and entrepreneurs: GST has increased the threshold for GST registration for small businesses. Those units having aggregate annual turnover more than ₹ 20 lakhs (10 lakh in case of North Eastern States) have be registered under GST. Unlike multiple registrations under different tax regimes earlier, a single registration is needed under GST in one State. An additional benefit under Composition scheme has also been provided for businesses with aggregate annual turnover up to ₹ 1.5 Cr. With the creation of a seamless national market across the country, small enterprises will have an opportunity to expand their national footprint with minimal investment. 14.4 Benefits to agriculture and Industry: GST will give more relief to industry, trade and agriculture through a more comprehensive and wider

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to foreign investment and Make in India campaign. It will prevent cascading of taxes and make products cheaper, thus boosting aggregate demand. It will result in harmonization of laws, procedures and rates of tax. It will boost export and manufacturing activity, generate more employment and thus increase GDP with gainful employment leading to substantive economic growth. Ultimately it will help in poverty eradication by generating more employment and more financial resources. More efficient neutralization of taxes especially for exports thereby making our products more competitive in the international market and give boost to Indian Exports. It will also improve the overall investment climate in the country which will naturally benefit the development in the states. Uniform CGST & SGST and IGST rates will reduce the incentive for evasion by eliminating rate arbitrage between neighboring States and that between intra and inter-State supplies. Average tax burden on companies is like

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ncouraging more paper trail of transactions. Common procedures for registration of taxpayers, refund of taxes, uniform formats of tax return, common tax base, common system of classification of goods and services will lend greater certainty to taxation system. 15. EXPERIENCE OF REGISTRATION, RETURN FILING & REVNUE: 15.1 Registration & Returns Snapshot: S. No. Details As on 28th February, 2019 1. No. of transited (migrated) taxpayers 66,25,077 2. Total No. of new applications received for registration 74,89,804 3. No. of applications approved 63,82,804 4. No. of applications rejected 10,53,602 5. Total No. of taxpayers; new + migrated (1 + 3) 1,28,14,377 6. No. of taxpayers who have opted for composition scheme 17,74,379 7. No. of 3 (B) returns filed for July, 2017 65,54,375 8. No. of 3(B) returns filed for August, 2017 71,25,772 9. No. of 3(B) returns filed for September, 2017 74,62,334 10. No. of 3(B) returns filed for October, 2017 72,12,281 11. No. of 3(B) returns filed for

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8,642 29. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for October, 2017 25,76,123 30. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for November, 2017 26,10,873 31. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for December, 2017 68,17,860 32. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for January, 2018 26,05,365 33. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for February, 2018 26,06,304 34. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for March, 2018 69,27,768 35. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for April, 2018 27,28,772 36. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for May, 2018 27,48,617 37. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for June, 2018 70,48,521 38. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for July, 2018 27,50,521 39. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for August, 2018 27,28,177 40. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for September, 2018 69,98,553 41. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for October, 2018 26,53,997 42. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for November, 2018 25,83,371 43. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for December, 2018 64,36,328 44. No. of GSTR 1 returns filed for January, 2019 21,83,680 45. No. of GSTR 2 returns filed for July,

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ebruary, 19 97,247 20. Total 18,11,442 16. CHALLENGES & FUTURE AHEAD: 16.1 Any new change is accompanied by difficulties and problems at the outset. A change as comprehensive as GST is bound to pose certain challenges not only for the government but also for business community, tax administration and even common citizens of the country. Some of these challenges relate to the unfamiliarity with the new regime and IT systems, legal challenges, return filing and reconciliations, passing on transition credit. Lack of robust IT infrastructure and system delays makes compliance difficult for the taxpayers. Many of the processes in the GST are new for small and medium enterprises in particular, who were not used to regular and online filing of returns and other formalities. 16.2 Based on the feedback received from businesses, consumers and taxpayers from across the country, attempt has been made to incorporate suggestions and reduce problems through short-term as well as long-term solutio

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