Goods and Services Tax

FAQ on Banking, Insurance and Stock Brokers Sector dated 01-07-2017

GST – General FAQ on GST – Frequently Asked Questions – 170701-01 – Q. 1. Whether banks are required to capture the details of ATMs in registration certificate as a place of business ? Ans. No. Banks are not required to provide the details of ATMs while applying for registration. For the purposes of registration, ATM on its own does not constitute a place of business, as defined in the CGST Act, 2017. Q. 2. As per RBI guidelines, Banks can use third party ATMs, Business Corres-pondents (BC), Customer Service Points (CSP) or third party warehouses. Are Banks required to include these third party places also in their GST registration? Ans. No. Third party places are neither places of business nor fixed establishments from where Banks ordinarily carry on their business. These are independent service providers to the Bank which are subject to GST. Thus, these places are not required to be declared as place of business by the Bank. Q. 3. What will be the time of supply in respect of servic

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t for such supplies has been made (prior to issuance of invoice) as advance before the 1st of July, 2017, the tax would be payable under the law prevalent prior to 1st July, 2017, as the point of taxation had arisen before this date to the extent of advance. Q. 5. Is it necessary for banks/ insurers to report the details of exempt and non-GST supplies in Table 8 of GSTR-1? Ans. Yes. In the absence of any specific exemption to the banks/insurers, the information is required to be provided in the said table. Q. 6. Is it necessary for banks/ insurers to report the details of invoices in Table 13 of GSTR-1? Ans. Rule 54(2) of the CGST Rules, 2017 provides that in case of an insurer or a banking company or a financial institution, including a non-banking financial company, the tax invoice or any other document in lieu thereof, may not be serially numbered. But this does not mean that such document will not have any identification number which is required for the purpose of matching. The sai

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or all recipients is available in cases where the turnover in States/Union territories for the previous financial year is not available. Therefore, in such cases, for the quarters after July, 2017 to September, 2017, the State/UT-wise turnover for the purposes of ISD can be determined based on the turnovers for the quarter of July, 2017 to September, 2017. For the months of July, August and September, 2017, the turnover for the month of July, 2017 may be considered for the purposes of distribution of credit. Q. 9. Is the condition to make payment for the value of supply plus the GST there-on required to be complied with by the recipient to claim the input tax credit where supplies for services are made between distinct persons? Ans. No, this condition is not required to be complied with by the recipient. As per the proviso to sub-rule (1) of Rule 37 of the CGST Rules, 2017 the value of supplies made without consideration as specified in paragraph 2 of Schedule I of the CGST Act, 2017 s

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not required to serially number its invoices/ document for supply of its services, how will the service recipient get credit for GST on the services provided by the bank? Ans. Under Rule 54(2) of the CGST Rules, 2017 a banking company or a financial institution including a NBFC or an insurer can issue an invoice or any other document in lieu thereof whether or not serially numbered and whether or not containing the address of the recipient but containing other information as mentioned under Rule 46. There is no restriction on the invoice/document being a consolidated invoice/document but it must bear an identification number, which need not necessarily be serially numbered. The recipient of service will get the credit for GST so long as the bank, etc., uploads the details of the invoice/document under that number with GSTIN of the recipient in its statement in FORM GSTR-1. Q. 12. Is the registered person procuring goods or services from a supplier outside India required to raise a self

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ly. This invoice, debit note or credit note for each such supply should be reported in the GST return of the month in which the supply takes place as per the provisions of Section 12(3) or 13(3) of the CGST Act, 2017. As the import of goods would be under the cover of a bill of entry, there is no need to raise a self-invoice. It may, however, be noted that Section 9(4) of the CGST Act, 2017/Section 5(4) of the IGST Act, 2017 has been suspended vide Notification No. 38/2017-Central Tax, as amended from time to time. Q. 13. For supply of taxable services, can a digitally signed invoice be issued in duplicate, with the original being marked as Original and the duplicate copy being marked as Duplicate ? Ans. In the context of digitally signed documents, the requirement of issuing original and duplicate invoices does not arise. A digitally signed invoice can be retained by the supplier and also be made available to the recipient. Q. 14. Is there a requirement to issue a payment voucher at t

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quipment may be moved by the Banks to the location of the third party service providers and after repairs, the equipment may be moved to a central/regional location for the purpose of programming, encryption, reconfiguration, etc. and thereafter to that place of business from where the equipment had been sent earlier. The equipment can be moved between such locations on the basis of a delivery challan . Q. 16. Is a Bill of Supply to be issued by a bank for exempt services like interest on loans and advances, interse sale or purchase of foreign currency amongst banks? Ans. As per clause (c) of sub-section (3) of Section 31 of the CGST Act, 2017 read with Rule 49 of the CGST Rules, 2017, there is a requirement for issuance of bill of supply for supply of exempt services by Banks. It may be noted, however, that there is no need to issue a separate bill of supply in case any invoice or document has already been issued in accordance with the provisions of any other law. Further, in view of

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ullion business, whether the requirement for reversal of 50 per cent. will also apply to bullion purchased by the Bank? Ans. In terms of Section 2(94) read with Section 25(4) & (5) of the CGST Act, 2017, a person is required to obtain more than one registration within a State or more than one State shall be treated as a distinct person for each such registration. Section 17(4) of the CGST Act, 2017 is applicable qua each registration and not for the bank as a whole, provided each of the business verticals is separately registered. Therefore, a bank engaged in trading in bullion may not opt for 50 per cent. reversal in respect of its purchases of bullion, where it is separately registered as a business vertical. Q. 19. Where there is a supply of goods or services between registered branches of a banking company on which GST is paid, will the recipient branch/office be eligible for 100% credit of the GST charged on such supply where the bank elects the 50% option to avail input tax c

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cated outside India would be liable to 50% reversal. Q. 21. Whether the provision of Section 18(6) for reversal of input tax credit availed on capital goods be applicable to banks only to the extent of the input tax credit availed? Ans. Yes. The provisions of Section 18(6) of the CGST Act, 2017 for reversal of input tax credit availed on capital goods would be applicable to banks only to the extent of the input tax credit availed by it. In case the Bank opts to avail input tax credit to the extent of 50% in terms of the second proviso to Section 17(4) of the CGST Act, 2017, reversal of credit would be in proportion to the actual credit availed by the Bank i.e. only with reference to 50% of the input tax credit availed by it on capital goods. Q. 22. Can a bank/insurer defer the availment of input tax credit for a month or quarter and avail of the same in subsequent months? Ans. Yes. As per Section 16(4) of the CGST Act, 2017, availment of input tax credit can be deferred and availed up

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ion of the recipient of services on the records of the supplier of services if services are provided to an unregistered person. Address available on records of the insurance company, which is ordinarily used for communication with the customer, may be considered as the place of supply . Q. 24. With respect to registered customers, whether the bank/insurance company is required to ascertain the place of consumption of service or whether the Bank can rely upon the GSTIN provided by the Customer? Ans. The bank/insurance company can rely upon the GSTIN provided by the customer. Q. 25. Would intermediary ser-vices provided to an off-shore client and services provided by a banking company to its offshore account holders be treated as an intra-State supply or an inter-State supply for payment of GST? Ans. Under clause (b) of Section 13(8) of the IGST Act, 2017 the place of supply of such services is the location of the provider of services. As the location of supplier and place of supply are

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matic mission or consular post in India or for personal use or for the use of the family members of diplomatic agents or career consular officers posted therein? Ans. Yes, the bank/insurer is required to charge GST in such cases. However, as per Section 55 of the CGST Act, 2017, subject to such conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed, such service recipients would be entitled to claim a refund of taxes paid on the notified supplies of services received by them. Q. 29. Who is liable to comply with GST on charges levied by overseas corres-pondent banks facilitating trade and other cross border transactions? Ans. In this case, there are two supplies namely, from bank in India to the importer/exporter and one from the overseas correspondent banks to the bank in India. So the liability to discharge GST on such supplies will be required to be determined accordingly. Q. 30. Will the second proviso to Rule 28 apply in the case of a banking company that selects the 50% option to avail

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rtherance of business will be supply even if imported without consideration. Therefore, where the services are supplied by a supplier without consideration to an unrelated recipient or a person other than a related or distinct person, the same would not amount to supply and not liable to GST. Q. 32. Can value of services be enhanced by invoking the CGST Rules in case of services provided by banks at a concessional/ differential rate to a recipient other than related party / distinct person ? Ans. Banks provide various services to customers for a charge. However, at times, account holders/customers are provided services free or at a concessional/differential rate. The free or concessional/differential rate is offered considering factors such as credit rating and stability of the customer, size of relationship, expected future business or the opportunity presented in the market elsewhere, etc. As a result, the charges for the same service may differ from customer to customer. Such servic

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he same meaning as assigned to it in clause (h) of Section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956 (SCRA). Derivatives are included in the definition of securities under Section 2(h)(ia) of the SCRA. In terms of Section 2(ac) of SCRA, derivatives includes – (A) a security derived from a debt instru-ment, share, loan, whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security; (B) a contract which derives its value from the prices, or index of prices, of under-lying securities. The definition of derivatives in SCRA is an inclusive definition. As derivatives fall in the definition of securities, they are not liable to GST. However, if some service charges or service fees or documentation fees or broking charges or such like fees or charges are charged, the same would be a consideration for provision of service and chargeable to GST. Q. 35. What is the nature of income/expenditure on Collateralized Borrowing and Lending Obligations

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are neither goods nor services as defined in the CGST Act, 2017, future contracts are not chargeable to GST. But where the future contracts have a delivery option and the settlement of contract takes place by way of actual delivery of underlying commodity/currency, then such forward contracts would be treated as normal supply of goods and liable to GST. Further, if some service charges or service fees or documentation fees or broking charges or such like fees or charges are charged, the same would be a consideration for supply of service and chargeable to GST. Q. 37. Would forward contracts in commodities or currencies be within the ambit of definition of supply ? Ans. A forward contract is an agreement, executed, to purchase or sell a predetermined amount of a commodity or currency at a predetermined future date at a predetermined price. The settlement could be by way of actual delivery of underlying commodity/currency or by way of net settlement of differential of the forward rate o

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ct, 1934 defines repos as an instrument for borrowing funds by selling securities with an agreement to repurchase the securities on a mutually agreed future date at an agreed price which includes interest for the funds borrowed. Section 45U (d) of the RBI Act, 1934 defines reverse repos as an instrument for lending funds by buying securities with an agreement to re-sell the securities on a mutually agreed future date at an agreed price which includes interest for the funds lent. Repos and reverse repos are financial instruments of short term call money market that are normally used by banks to borrow from or lend money to RBI. The margins, called the repo rate or reverse repo rate, in such transactions are nothing but interest charged for lending or borrowing of money. Thus they have the characteristics of loans and deposits for interest and are accordingly exempt from GST [serial no. 27 of the table of Notification No. 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June, 2017, as amended]. Q.

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no. 27 of the table of Notification No. 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate), dated 28th June, 2017, as amended]. Further, promissory note is included in the definition of money as given in clause (75) of Section 2 of the CGST Act, 2017 and hence not liable to GST. However, if some service charges or service fees or documentation fees or broking charges or such like fees or charges are charged, the same would be a consideration for supply of services and chargeable to GST. Q. 40. Whether assignment or sale of secured or un-secured debts is liable to GST? Ans. Section 2(52) of the CGST Act, 2017 defines goods to mean every kind of movable property other than money and securities but includes actionable claim. Schedule III of the CGST Act, 2017 lists activities or transactions which shall be treated neither as a supply of goods nor a supply of services and actionable claims other than lottery, betting and gambling are included in the said Schedule. Thus, only actionable claims in respect of lotter

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ected over and above the interest or discount would represent taxable consideration and hence liable to GST. Q. 43. To what extent is invoice discounting or cheque discounting or any other similar form of dis-counting exempt under GST? Ans. Discounting of invoices or cheques falls within the meaning of services by way of extending deposits, loans or advances in so far as the consideration is represented by way of interest or discount . Such discounting is exempt from payment of GST, as such discounting is nothing but a manner of extending a credit facility or a loan. However, if some service charges or service fees or documentation fees or broking charges or such like fees or charges are charged, the same would be a consideration for supply of service and chargeable to GST. Q. 44. Is interest on debt instruments exempt from GST? Ans. Yes. As debt instruments such as debentures, bonds, etc., are in the nature of loans, interest thereon will be exempt from GST. Q. 45. Is GST required to

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Bank in financing the asset. Services by way of extending deposits, loans or advances in so far as the consideration is represented by way of interest or discount (other than interest involved in credit card services) is exempt. But, in a financial lease the ownership of the asset is with the bank. In essence, it is a purchase the asset and lend it further transaction for bank. Therefore, neither the services are purely in the nature of extending loans nor the consideration for a financial lease is purely in the nature of interest. Thus, interest on finance lease transactions will be taxable under GST. Q. 48. Where GST is charged on a supply of service and the amounts due from the customer become ire-coverable as a bad debt in commercial practice, would such GST paid on accrual basis be refundable to the service provider by the Government? Ans. The adjustment of GST already paid is allowed only by way of issuance of credit/debit note in terms of Section 34 of the CGST Act, 2017. The p

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supplied by a banking company located in India to account holders located outside India is the location of the service provider i.e. banking company. Account has been defined in Explanation (a) to Section 13(8) of the IGST Act, 2017 to mean an account which bears interest to the depositor, and includes a non-resident external (NRE) account and a non-resident ordinary (NRO) account. Services provided to holders of demand deposits, term deposits, NRE account and NRO account outside India will be covered by the definition of account referred to above. Examples of such services are : (i) services linked to or requiring opening and operation of bank accounts, such as, lending and deposits; (ii) transfer of money including telegraphic transfer, mail transfer, electronic transfer, etc. Q. 51. Which services do not qualify as services provided to account holder as per Section 13(8) of the IGST Act, 2017 and thus the place of supply will be the location of the recipient of services? Following

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shall be the location of the recipient of services. Q. 52. What is the location of the supplier in case of banking and other financial services where multiple locations are involved in providing the services to a customer? Ans. Banking services emanate from the bank account opened by a customer with the branch of a bank or through a contractual relationship between the branch of a bank and the customer. The branch holding the customer s account is referred to as the Account Branch or the Home Branch . An account would include all types of accounts – viz. interest bearing, non-interest bearing, loan account, deposit account, etc. In the present day of anywhere banking , the customer avails banking services through mobile/internet banking or by visiting any branch of the bank. At times the services are provided through branches/locations other than the Account Branch or the Home Branch . It is clarified that the services provided by the other branches are actually services provided to t

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in Section 2(75) of the CGST Act, 2017 to include instruments like cheques, drafts, pay orders, promissory notes, letters of credit, etc. Therefore, activities that are only transactions in such instruments would be outside the definition of service. This would include transactions in Commercial Paper ( CP ) and Certificate of Deposit ( CD ) (as they are in the nature of promissory notes), issuance of drafts or letters of credit, etc. While these transactions would be outside the ambit of supply, the related activity, for which a separate consideration is charged, would be chargeable to GST if other elements of taxability are present. Therefore, GST would be levied on service charges normally charged for various transactions in money including charges for making drafts, issuance charges for letter of credit, etc. Definition of securities includes derivatives . Transactions in instruments like interest rate swaps, and foreign exchange swaps would be excluded from the definition of supp

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outside India. Such services will not be treated as exports in view of the sub-clause (v) of Section 2(6) of the IGST Act, 2017 read with Explanation 1 to Section 8 of the IGST Act, 2017. Q. 55. Will the management oversight or stewardship activities performed in relation to business operations by the Head Office of a bank to a Branch in India be considered as a supply of services by the Head Office even when there is no consideration charged by the Head Office, nor any expenditure recorded in the books of account of the branches? Ans. As per Schedule-I to the CGST Act, 2017, supply of services between distinct entities will be a taxable supply even in absence of a consideration. Q. 56. If tax is payable on provision of management oversight or stewardship services by a related person, what shall be the value of supply when no invoice is raised, no payment is made by recipient or no entry is made in the books of account of the recipient of service? What will be the time of supply? Ans.

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import of gold by the Nominated Bank at the time of clearance of gold by the Customs. Q. 58. Will there be another liability for payment of GST when the gold (metal) is appropriated or drawn from the consignment stock by the Nominated Bank? Ans. The supply of gold (metal) is already deemed to have taken place in terms of para 3 of Schedule I of the CGST Act, 2017 when the same was despatched by the overseas supplier to the Nominated Bank. Since the supply has already taken place, there will not be another supply when the gold is drawn or appropriated by the Nominated Bank from the stock. There will, therefore, not be another levy of GST. Q. 59. In the case of gold (metal) loan, whether the supply of gold (metal) to the jeweller will be deemed to take place at the time of delivery of gold (metal) or at the time when the price of gold (metal) is fixed by the jeweller? Ans. The Gold (Metal) Loan Scheme approved by the Reserve Bank of India is a means of financing. The banks deliver gold

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loan? Ans. The Gold (Metal) Loan Scheme is a means of financing. The jewellers can purchase gold (metal) from the banks on outright basis on payment of the price. The gold (metal) loan only provides an option to the jeweller to avail a loan and pay for gold (metal) at a future date. For this facility, the jeweller pays interest to the Bank. The grant of loan and levy of interest is dependent on the purchase of gold, and therefore, part of the same transaction or facility; therefore the interest, which is the consideration, will not be exempt as per provisions of Section 15(2)(d) of the CGST Act, 2017. Q. 61. What will be the place of supply in cases where the account is held in a bank in one State but some services are availed in a different branch of the same bank in another State. Ans. As per the provisions of Section 12(12) of the IGST Act, 2017, the place of supply of services for a bank is the location of the recipient of the services on the records of the supplier of services. In

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chargeable to GST. Q. 64. Whether GST will be levied on interchange fees on card settlement fees paid/shared by banks? Ans. Fees charged for card settlement is a consideration which is part of a separate transaction between the banks which are parties to this transaction and shall be liable to GST. This is a B2B supply and credit of this transaction is available. Q. 65. What is the leviability of GST on securitization transactions undertaken by banks? Ans. Securitized assets are in the nature of securities and hence not liable to GST. However, if some service charges or service fees or documentation fees or broking charges or such like fees or charges are charged, the same would be a consideration for provision of services related to securitization and chargeable to GST. INSURANCE SECTOR Q. 66. What is the location of the supplier of service for fund management charges in ULIP policies? Ans. The fund management charges are charges towards managing and administering the fund. These fund

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emiums be taxable in cases where the same is not received in convertible foreign exchange or from the NRE Accounts? Ans. No. The amounts paid from the Non-Resident External Accounts are paid in Indian rupees and are not received in convertible foreign exchange. Therefore, the conditions for export of services as provided under Section 2(6) of IGST Act, 2017 are not satisfied. Life Insurance services in such cases would be treated as inter-State supplies and subject to GST. Q. 69. Will the requirements of Letter of Undertaking or Bond be required to be complied with in the case of Life Insurance Premium where the conditions of export of services are satisfied before or at the time of supply of the Life Insurance Service? Ans. Yes. As per Section 16(3) of the IGST Act, 2017, read with Rule 96A of the CGST Rules, 2017, an exporter is required to submit a Letter of Undertaking or Bond in case the export of service is made without payment of integrated tax. Q. 70. What would be the time of

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under Section 142(5) of the CGST Act? Ans. Section 142(5) of the CGST Act, 2017 specifically provides for refund of tax paid under the Finance Act, 1994 in respect of services not provided. The same shall be disposed of in accordance with the provisions of Chapter V of the Finance Act, 1994. Q. 72. Can the input tax credit of Krishi Kalyan Cess be carried forward? Ans. No. It is not permitted in terms of Section 140(1) of the CGST Act, 2017 read with Rule 117(1) of the CGST Rules, 2017. Q. 73. In the case of group insurance policies, a Master Policy is issued; the beneficiaries of the Master Policy may be located in more than one State. In such cases, what will be the place of supply of services? Ans. In the case of issuance of Master/Group Policy to a registered person where the premium charged is a single premium and not segregated based on the beneficiaries of the insurance policies, the place of supply for such policy will be the location of the registered person paying the premiu

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is chargeable to GST. STOCK BROKING SERVICES Q. 77. In the case of stock broking, whether stamp duty or securities transaction tax or other Central or State taxes would be considered as a part of the value of supply as prescribed under Section 15 of the CGST Act, 2017, for levy of GST? Ans. GST is not payable by the stock brokers on these recoveries as long as the conditions of pure agent as provided in Rule 33 of the CGST Rules, 2017 are met. If not, then valuation will be done as per Section 15 of the CGST Act, 2017 read with Rule 27 of CGST Rules, 2017. Q. 78. Is brokerage earned in stock broking service liable to Goods and Services Tax? Ans. Yes. Since the stock brokers are engaged in the business of supplying the stock broking service, appropriate GST is payable on the same. Q. 79. Can a person take voluntary registration under the Act? Ans. Section 25(3) of the CGST Act, 2017 states that a person, though not liable to be registered under Section 22 or Section 24 of the CGST Act,

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he location of the recipient is outside India, the place of supply shall be determined as per Section 13(8) of the IGST Act, 2017 i.e. as an intermediary. Q. 82. Do stock brokers fall in the definition of interme-diary under Section 2(13) of the IGST Act, 2017? Ans. Yes. Since stock brokers arrange the supply of securities between two or more persons, stock brokers would be covered by the definition of intermediary . Q. 83. Would sub-brokers/ Authorized Persons fall in the definition of agent under Section 2(5) of the CGST Act, 2017? What would be the registration requirement for sub-brokers/Authorized Persons in the context of the Goods and Services Tax Regime? Ans. As per Stock Brokers and Sub-brokers Regulation, 1992 issued by SEBI, a sub-broker means any person, not being a member of stock exchange, who acts on behalf of a stock broker as an agent or otherwise for assisting the investors in buying, selling or dealing in securities through such stock brokers . It is, therefore, appa

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tores his goods, supplies or receives goods or services or both; or (ii) a place where a taxable person maintains his books of account; or (iii) a place where a taxable person is engaged in business through an agent, by whatever name called. In case of operations of a stock broker, it is required by law that all transactions would be via screen based trading on the Stock Exchanges. Therefore, the following would be the place of business in case of stock brokers : (i) All the branches of the stock broker where the Stock Exchange Trading terminals are located and where trade is carried out on behalf of clients; (ii) Main office/Head office/Registered Office/Branch office where back office operations are carried out including issuing of bills/contracts/tax invoices/ account statements to the clients. In case of sub-brokers /Authorised Person office, where the premises are neither owned by the stock broker nor rented/ leased in favour of the stock broker and there are no employees on the p

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tegrated tax? Ans. Under Section 19(1) of the IGST Act, 2017 a registered person who has paid integrated tax on a supply considered by him to be an inter-State supply, but which is subsequently held to be an intra-State supply, shall be granted refund of the amount of integrated tax so paid in such manner and subject to such conditions as may be prescribed . Under Section 19(2) of the IGST Act, 2017 a registered person who has paid Central tax and State tax or Union territory tax, as the case may be, on a transaction considered by him to be an intra-State supply, but which is subsequently held to be an inter-State supply, shall not be required to pay any interest on the amount of integrated tax payable . Therefore, in case a registered person has paid Integrated tax instead of Central tax and State tax or Union territory tax, then he shall be granted refund of the amount paid as Integrated tax and he will have to pay Central tax and State tax or Union territory tax. Further, no interes

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ation for the said supply in his books of account. Q. 88. Can the stock broker continue to issue bills and contracts under the normal Stock Exchange mechanism and issue a monthly tax invoice for the purpose of Goods and Services Tax? Ans. The stock broker can issue bills and contracts under the normal Stock Exchange mechanism mentioning the GST amount but will have to issue a tax invoice as envisaged under Section 31(2) of the CGST Act, 2017 read with Rule 47 of the CGST Rules, 2017. Q. 89. What is considered as securities under the Goods and Services Tax Act? Are they taxable under GST? Ans. Section 2(101) of the CGST Act, 2017 defines securities to have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (h) of Section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956. Section 2(52) of the CGST Act, 2017 defines goods to mean every kind of movable property other than money and securities but includes actionable claim, growing crops, grass and things attached to or forming part of the lan

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mponent of an enterprise that is engaged in the supply of individual goods or services or a group of related goods or services which is subject to risks and returns that are different from those of the other business verticals. Explanation. – For the purposes of this clause, factors that should be considered in determining whether goods or services are related include – (i) the nature of the goods or services; (ii) the nature of the production processes; (iii) the type or class of customers for the goods or services; (iv) the methods used to distribute the goods or supply of services; and (v) the nature of regulatory environment (wherever applicable), including banking, insurance, or public utilities . It is the choice of the taxable person to build all the services provided in one vertical or separate verticals based on their business models and requirements. They may choose to obtain separate registration as a business vertical in terms of the proviso to Section 25(2) of the CGST Act

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